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Blend Definition

Black Cavendish

Cavendish is a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco. It is not a type of tobacco. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced out of any tobacco type but it is usually one or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and Burley. It is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars.

The process begins by pressing the tobacco leaves into a cake about an inch thick. Heat from fire or steam is applied and the tobacco is allowed to ferment. This is said to result in a sweet and mild tobacco. Finally the cake is sliced. Before packing the tobacco evenly into a pipe, these slices must be broken apart by rubbing in with a circular motion between one's palms. Flavoring is often added before the leaves are pressed. English Cavendish uses a dark flue or fire cured Virginia (DEC), which is steamed and then stored under pressure to permit it to cure and ferment for several days or weeks.

Burley

The origin of White Burley tobacco was credited to a Mr. Webb in 1864. He grew it near Higginsport, Ohio, with seeds from Bracken County, Kentucky. He noticed that it yielded a different type of light leaf shaded from white to yellow and cured differently. By 1866, he harvested 20,000 pounds of Burley tobacco and sold it in 1867 at the St. Louis Fair for $58 per hundred pounds. By 1883, the principal market for this tobacco was in Cincinnati, but it was grown throughout central Kentucky and Middle Tennessee. In 1880 Kentucky produced 36 percent of the total national tobacco production and was first in the country, with nearly twice as much tobacco produced by Virginia, the second-place state.

Burley tobacco is a light air-cured tobacco used primarily for cigarette production. In the United States, it is produced in an eight-state belt with approximately 70 percent produced in Kentucky. Tennessee produces approximately 20 percent, with smaller amounts produced in Indiana, North Carolina, Missouri, Ohio, Virginia and West Virginia. Burley tobacco is produced in many other countries, with major production in Brazil, Malawi and Argentina. In the U.S., burley tobacco plants start from pelletized seeds placed in polystyrene trays that float on a bed of fertilized water during the month of March or April.

Cavendish

Cavendish is a process of curing and a method of cutting tobacco. It is not a type of tobacco. The processing and the cut are used to bring out the natural sweet taste in the tobacco. Cavendish can be produced out of any tobacco type but it is usually one or a blend of Kentucky, Virginia, and Burley. It is most commonly used for pipe tobacco and cigars.

The process begins by pressing the tobacco leaves into a cake about an inch thick. Heat from fire or steam is applied and the tobacco is allowed to ferment. This is said to result in a sweet and mild tobacco. Finally the cake is sliced. Before packing the tobacco evenly into a pipe, these slices must be broken apart by rubbing in with a circular motion between one's palms. Flavoring is often added before the leaves are pressed. English Cavendish uses a dark flue or fire cured Virginia (DEC), which is steamed and then stored under pressure to permit it to cure and ferment for several days or weeks.

Clove

Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum. They are native to the Maluku Islands in Indonesia and are commonly used as a spice. Cloves are commercially harvested primarily in Bangladesh, Indonesia, India, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Tanzania. Cloves are available throughout the year. The spice is used in a type of cigarette called Kretek in Indonesia. Clove cigarettes are smoked throughout Europe, Asia and the United States. 

Dark-Fired Kentucky

Dark-Fired Kentucky tobacco is a robust variety of tobacco used as a condimental for pipe or cigarette blends. It is cured by smoking over gentle fires. In the United States, it is grown in northern middle Tennessee, western Kentucky and in Virginia. Fire-cured tobacco grown in Kentucky and Tennessee is used in some chewing tobaccos, moist snuff, some cigarettes and as a condiment leaf in pipe tobacco blends. It has a rich, slightly floral taste, and adds body and aroma to the blend.

English

An English blend is a style of pipe tobacco blend that consists primarily of Latakia mixed with some Virginia and/or Oriental/Turkish tobacco. It is contrasted by aromatic pipe blends which are often sweet and cased with natural flavors.

Habano

Habano cigar leaf is grown from a Cuban seed, hence the word “Habano” or “Havano,” referring to Cuba’s capital. Habano tobacco leaf is darker in color, has a spicy flavor, a rich aroma, and grown in Nicaragua’s Jalapa Valley and Estelí since the 1990’s.

Latakia

Latakia is a fire-cured tobacco produced from oriental varieties of Nicotiana tabacum. The leaves are cured and smoked over smoldering fires of local hardwoods and aromatic shrubs in Cyprus and Syria. Latakia has a pronounced flavor and a very distinctive smoky aroma, and is used in Balkan and English-style pipe tobacco blends.

Maduro

Maduro is a process for bringing out the sweetness of a tobacco leaf. Maduro is a Spanish word meaning "ripe." Maduro wrappers come from fermenting tobacco in Pilone at higher temperatures and with more humidity than other tobacco types.

Menthol

Menthol is an organic compound obtained from corn mint, peppermint, or other mint oils. It is used as a smoking tobacco additive in some cigarette brands, for flavor and to reduce throat and sinus irritation caused by smoking. Menthol also increases nicotine receptor density.

Oriental

Oriental tobacco is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) that is grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Lebanon, and the Republic of Macedonia. Oriental tobacco is frequently referred to as "Turkish tobacco", as these regions were all historically part of the Ottoman Empire. Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Oriental tobacco. Today, it is mainly used in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley and Oriental).

Perique

Perhaps the strongest flavor of all tobaccos is the Perique, from Saint James Parish, Louisiana. When the Acadians made their way into this region in 1755, the Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes were cultivating a variety of tobacco with a distinctive flavor. A farmer called Pierre Chenet is credited with first turning this local tobacco into the Perique in 1824 through the technique of pressure-fermentation.

Considered the truffle of pipe tobaccos, the Perique is used as a component of many blended pipe tobaccos, but it is too strong to smoke pure. At one time, the freshly moist Perique was also chewed, but currently none is sold for this purpose. It is traditionally a pipe tobacco and still very popular with pipe-smokers. Perique is typically blended with pure Virginia to lend spice, strength, and coolness to the blend.

South American

This tobacco variety has an extraordinarily long leaf that is "flagging." The leaf color is a dark reddish brown. The flavor is nutty, chocolate and coffee with notes of cinnamon. It is a flavorful tobacco with a pleasant aroma and hints of cherry and currents.

Turkish

Oriental tobacco is a sun-cured, highly aromatic, small-leafed variety (Nicotiana tabacum) that is grown in Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Lebanon, and the Republic of Macedonia. Oriental tobacco is frequently referred to as "Turkish tobacco", as these regions were all historically part of the Ottoman Empire. Many of the early brands of cigarettes were made mostly or entirely of Oriental tobacco. Today, it is mainly used in blends of pipe and especially cigarette tobacco (a typical American cigarette is a blend of bright Virginia, burley and Oriental).

Virginia

Bright-leaf tobacco is commonly known as "Virginia tobacco", regardless of where in the world it is harvested. Prior to the American Civil War, most tobacco grown in the US was fire-cured dark-leaf. This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured.

Sometime after the War of 1812, demand for a milder, lighter, more aromatic tobacco arose. Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland all innovated with milder varieties of the tobacco plant. Farmers around the country experimented with different curing processes. But the breakthrough did not come until around 1839.

Growers had noticed that sandy, highland soil produced thinner, weaker plants. Captain Abisha Slade, of Caswell County, North Carolina had considerable infertile, sandy soil, and planted the new "gold-leaf" varieties on it. Slade owned a slave, Stephen, who around 1839 accidentally produced the first true bright tobacco. He used charcoal to restart a fire used to cure the crop. The surge of heat turned the leaves yellow. Using that discovery, Slade developed a system for producing bright tobacco, cultivated on poorer soils and using charcoal for heat-curing.

Slade made many public appearances to share the bright-leaf process with other farmers. His success helped him build a brick house in Yanceyville, North Carolina, and at one time he had many servants.

News spread through the area pretty quickly. The infertile sandy soil of the Appalachian piedmont was suddenly profitable, and people rapidly developed flue-curing techniques, a more efficient way of smoke-free curing. Farmers discovered that Bright-leaf tobacco needs thin, starved soil, and those who could not grow other crops found that they could grow tobacco. Formerly unproductive farms reached 20–35 times their previous worth. By 1855, six Piedmont counties adjoining Virginia ruled the tobacco market.

By the outbreak of the Civil War, the town of Danville, Virginia had developed a bright-leaf market for the surrounding area in Caswell County, North Carolina and Pittsylvania County, Virginia.

Danville was also the main railway head for Confederate soldiers going to the front. These brought bright tobacco with them from Danville to the lines, traded it with each other and Union soldiers, and developed quite a taste for it. At the end of the war, the soldiers went home and a national market had developed for the local crop. Caswell and Pittsylvania counties were the only two counties in the South that increased in total wealth after the war.

Most Canadian cigarettes are made from 100% pure Virginia tobacco.

 

 

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